Although attempts at developing a plumbing system can be traced to Mesopotamia around 2,500 B.C., it was the Romans who implemented a broad plumbing plan. Under Roman supervision, outhouses were strategically placed over a network of sewers equipped with running water. It was a great idea, but it didn’t catch on very quickly. By the Middle Ages, Europeans were still pitching waste out of their windows, and the humble chamber pot was a staple in every home. The stench in London’s streets from the lack of sanitation was awful, and after a devastating cholera epidemic, a comprehensive system for sewage disposal became a priority.